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cipotes : In the Hands of Our Lady
Enviado por Escritor10 el 9/12/2005 0:51:04 (1396 Lecturas)
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Acotación:

In the Hands of Our Lady


By Mario jiménez Castillo

It was the decade of the eighties in El Salvador, the year was 1981 and only a few days into the month of January to be more exact, times were hard, apprehension and uncertainty were present every day following the beginning of a communist revolution two years back.
Life had changed radically for everybody in the country; it was a period of tribulation. I have almost forgotten most of the bad memories from those days, however I will always remember the events that took place Saturday the 10th of January of that same year.

Refreshing my memory…it was around five o'clock in the evening, the sun had started to set between the mountains in the horizon and it seemed like it was an uneventful kind of day. At home, my father was having a get together with a few of his friends who were, like him, supporters of a new conservative political party that believed in the fight for progress in the country; in reality it was only a small percentage of people that agreed with the Marxist-Leninist ideas.

Even though I was only eight years old, I understood that my country was going through an unfair war provoked by the obscure interests of other countries that had fallen under the communism's iron fist.
I watched as my father and his friends talked enthusiastically, their words reflected the principles and values of these citizens who didn't want their country sunk in an absurd and destructive idealism.

An hour or so had passed; it was about 6 pm and already dark, my friend Walter and I were out for our usual bicycle ride around the neighborhood. After our ride we headed back to my house and started saying our goodbyes when seconds later we could hear the first shots of what was going to turn into a violent confrontation between the army and the rebels.


My father, like he usually did when there was a confrontation, proceeded to lock and secure the doors and place sacks filled with sand against the windows so the bullets wouldn't get in the house. Later we took refuge in a small room at the end of a hallway, it seemed to be the safest place in the house being the farthest from the street.
There was enough space for our group of 11, my father and five of his friends, my mother, my sister who was only a year old, the maid whom we'll call Nora and her eight-month-old baby boy.

Those confrontations didn't alarm us that much anymore, after two years of the same situation they had become part of the daily routine.
An hour into the crossed fire we could hear explosions and desperate screams coming from the street, suddenly it stopped. There was silence and calm for about fifteen minutes, thinking it was over we decided to come out into the hallway and proceed to the dinning room where we thought we could enjoy a delicious typical dinner Nora had prepared earlier. We had no idea of what was coming…*****

Everybody was already seated at the table and ready to begin eating when we heard loud voices coming from outside, it were a group of insurrects yelling my father's name and declaring that they would kill him. My father ran to get his shotgun while one of his friends who was also armed went with him upstairs, that way they could have a strategic place from where to confront the troublemakers who were threatening to kill us one by one.

My father ordered my mother to find a way to save my sister and I. Nora cried inconsolably and the rest had started to turn as white as a sheet. My mother made a phone call to the army but by the look of anguish in her face you could tell the answer wasn't good, I sensed something terrible was happening. It turn out I wasn't wrong, two mid-rank military officers had betrayed the high command letting a hundred or so rebels enter the base of the second infantry brigade, it was chaos, what they told her was to be patriotic and fight for her life. Around those days the first great communist offensive was being carried out on a national level.

My mother insisted trying to communicate with other security authorities, the police, the National Guard but it was useless there was no answer.
From outside we could hear all kind of detonations from different caliber guns, firing helicopters and the loud engines of the military tanks; all of these were an indication that most of the population had to find a way to survive on their own.




I tried to communicate by radio with friends and relatives but it was impossible, all that I could hear were messages asking for help, hurt people calling for ambulances and the cries of an old woman begging for help after her house had been partly destroyed by a fragmentary grenade. In those moments of desperation and anguish, the only thing that sustained me was the strong faith that had been instilled in me ever since I remember.

My father, like the brave man that he is, started defending us from the enemy fire, he was ready to fight for our lives until the end. Fortunately his friend and he had enough ammunition to confront the rebels. It was ten men against the two of them but that didn't deter him from doing what he had to do.

Terror began invading our hearts; it showed in our faces, the only thing I could do was pray with all the faith that an eight-year-old attending third grade in a catholic school could have. That moment I remembered the teachings of Father Salazar, my religion teacher, whom always told us to come to Blessed Virgin Mary in times of danger and need. I started praying right that very moment and asked her to please not let my sister and I become orphans.

I knew we were in danger of dying, then suddenly remembered that a couple of days before some repairs had been done to the roof and the contractors had left behind a very tall ladder that was still in the backyard.

The height of the back wall of that old house was about 30 feet and all I could think of was telling my mother we could go over the wall and escape to the back neighbor's house, at that moment it was the only possibility of survival we had.

My father's friend had placed heavy furniture and objects blocking the front door and covered the windows completely with sand- rock filled sacks. This protected us from any strayed bullets headed for the inside, which could take our lives. Seconds later I ran to my father to tell him about my plan, he looked me in the eye and told me not to ever forget that he loved me and even if he died, he would always be with me, I felt my heart break in two at that very moment but I still felt the responsibility to protect my mother and save my sister, Nora and her baby from certain death.

The rest of my father's friends who were not armed helped us by leaning the ladder against the wall then decided to join my father taking some old guns from my father's collection. Once the ladder was placed, my mother who was carrying my sister was the first one to go up then Nora and her baby and finally it was I.




Once on the roof I realized we had to jump down from a very tall wall that divided the two houses, this wall was at least 32 feet high, there was no time to lose, I could hear the bullets around me and had to act immediately. From here I could see many of the neighborhood's backyards but this one in particular had a lot of fruit trees and one of them was a very tall mango tree, I thought I could jump to it, climb it down and then jump about 9 feet to the ground and that's exactly what I did.

As soon as I touched the ground I gave instructions to my mother to literally let my sister drop down and that I'll catch her in my arms. It was a very tense moment; the sound of the bullets and bombs pierced the night, my father was fighting to save us and I had this great responsibility to save the lives of a one-year-old little girl and an eight-month-old baby boy, my calculations had to be perfect otherwise both of them could suffer multiple fractures or even die.

There was no turning back, we had to act and right that very moment I yelled "now" to my mother and as if in slow motion I watched as my baby sister came falling down and straight into my arms. I thanked God, took a deep breath and did it again, this time with Nora's baby. She started crying when she let go of him but in a blink of an eye he was in my arms. The first part of our plan had been successful, the babies were safe and seemed to know what was going, they both kept very quiet.

My mother and Nora also made it down; the branches had torn their clothes and you could see the anguish in their faces. For now we were temporarily safe. Soon after an elderly man approached us, he had a gun in his hand and was ready to use it but, almost immediately, he recognized us and even though he didn't like the idea of us being in his property for his own security, he and his wife decided to take us in.

Our neighbors were Don Juan and Doña Maria, it was just the two of them in the house and they appear to be very calm and serene in the face of this attack our city was suffering from. Doña Maria decided we should all remain together hiding in one of the rooms. Their colonial style house was, at least a century and a half old, its dimensions were huge, the walls were a good four feet wide, the ceilings as much as thirty feet high and the rooms enormous.






Our improvised hideaway was in the basement so we had to go down some stairs before getting to it. Once there I realized we were in this room that looked more like an antique gallery than a basement room. I scanned the room with my eyes and leaning against the far wall I could see an altar, there were candles on it and several figures, among them one of the Virgin Mary, I went up to it, closed my eyes and prayed for a couple of minutes asking her to save us. I opened my eyes and for an instant I felt surrounded by the light reflected from a beautiful crystalline rosary that decorated the Virgin's tunic.

My mother sat on the floor with my baby sister on her lap, Nora did the same and eventually all of us got comfortable on an old rug set close to the basement door. The bullets kept shaking the city and bombs exploded every minute, my thoughts were on my father, I was very worried about the fate that awaited him. Three hours went by without a change, there was no let up and our hope of seeing my father alive again was gradually fading.

Suddenly we heard a deafening explosion, it seemed to come from across the street; the anguish and suffering I felt clouded my reasoning as I felt the urge to come out and look for my father but before I could go anywhere the others stopped me. Soon after we heard some voices coming from outside calling for my mother, she recognize one of them, it was one of my father's friends; Don Juan went upstairs and led the two of them to our hideaway.

By the somber look in their faces I assumed they had bad news for us, then they approached my mother and took her aside, they didn't want me to hear what they had to say but it was impossible, an indescribable pain took hold of my heart when I heard "the news"; the rebels had bombed the front of our house and the odds were my father was dead…

My mother cried in silence, the sorrow and grief she felt was immense, it was a mixture of tears, sadness and confusion; my baby sister, even though she didn't understand the graveness of the situation, started crying. This was the picture of total chaos.
Doña Maria prompted us to be quiet for even though our hideout wasn't visible from the outside corridors and garden, the rebels could be led to us guided by the sound of our voices. Their screams of victory and the laughter could be heard in the background, they were so sure of defeating their opponents. It was madness; life didn't mean anything to them, the only thing they cared about was destroying the fragile democracy we still had and hand us over to the perverted minds of those who had brainwashed them while being trained in a foreign country, especially by Fidel Castro in Cuba.




Every five minutes those troublemakers would repeat various well-known names of politicians, businessmen and religious activists, all of whom were at the top of their list of people they thought should die. I felt so much anger towards the agitators but at the same time I knew there was nothing I could do, my hands were tied, every one of us in this refuge felt so powerless and despondent.

It seemed that all this sorrow had us paralyzed, then all of a sudden I turned to look at the altar and saw how one of the candles flame had ignited part of the Virgin's tunic and was threatening to become a full fledge fire. We all ran to put the fire out and at that very instant I heard a very loud detonation, seconds later I fell unconscious.

I have no idea how long I was out but when I finally came to I could see how what once was this huge basement had been reduced to just a small room covered with debris. The savages had bombarded the house and you could hear anything from the outside, heavy walls covered us and they wouldn't let any light or sound come in from the outside. Only one of the candles form the altar survived the explosion and for now this was the only light we had.

I felt a sense of relief when I saw the faces of my mother and sister; they were all covered in dirt and dust but were alive and well. One by one I watched as they slowly got up, ever one of them with just small cuts and scratches. I soon realized that we were right in front of the altar and the room's dimension was now reduced to only about 12 square feet.

Doña Maria seemed out of breath and her husband tried to comfort her. The situation had gotten worse. There were nine people in this small place that now looked more like a cave with no way in or out. One of my father's friends took a look at his watch; it was three o'clock in the morning, more than nine hours had passed since the confrontation had started, we were hungry and thirsty but there was no way we could get out of our improvised little fortress.

Hours passed and desperation started to creep in, it had been a whole day since we'd been caved in and it had started to look as if nobody would come to our rescue. The only company we had was a couple of figures from the altar that remained intact and a few candles we found among the rubble, which we used for light, otherwise we would've been in total darkness.
We could now faintly hear some detonations, which only reminded us the nightmare wasn't over yet.





Early the next morning I could see some thin rays of light, filtering in from the roof, bathe the altar illuminating it. We couldn't hear any sounds and our worst fear was the threat of the huge blocks of concrete up above that could fall any minute killing us all. We had been buried here for a day and a half and it looked like only a miracle could save us now. For hours there were no sounds of tanks or detonations, we didn't know what was going on; the candles were all gone and all that we had was a watch and the minute sparkles of sunlight that came in through equally minute holes and cracks on the roof and walls. We thought of different alternatives to get out of there but ell proved futile, we couldn't even try to get up to the ceiling because of the threat of those enormous walls to crumble down and crush us to death.

Doña Maria couldn't even get up from the floor anymore; the intense emotions, her house almost in ruins and the weakness from not eating and resting were really playing havoc with her health, which was not very good to start with. Don Juan kept his sanity by telling us stories of the early wars that had happened in the first decades of the century. For a while his anecdotes would make our agony a little more bearable. My mother comforted my baby sister and Nora her baby. My father's friends felt useless, there was nothing they could do and at the same time they felt anguish because they didn't know the fate of their own families. We were totally isolated from the outside. I kept suffering in silence thinking that my father had died in the explosion of two days ago. For short moments we would calm down, pray and even asked for forgiveness for our sins, it seemed to us our days were numbered.

Just when we thought everything was lost and hope was vanishing from our hearts something happened that gave us relief, if it was only momentarily, a dog started barking nearby, we didn't know where it was but it seemed to come from the back of the house. I listened attentively and figured the barking was coming from one small hole from which some light came in. Don Juan started calling on the dog, it's barking sounded familiar, like that of a neighbor's pet, the dog recognized Don Juan's voice and started digging but nothing would happen, the hole was too small and deep; hours went by and maybe hunger and tiredness was what made the dog give up on it for we never heard it again. He never came back.

It was already dark and sorrow ness had possessed us all, the second day was almost over and we were still in this dark place with no way out. Our hope of being rescued was slowly dying.


The third day of captivity had started, the fear of being killed by the rebels had disappear, the only thing we thought of, was getting out this place. We were running out of air, Doña Maria was in bad shape, she needed her medication for diabetes and high blood pressure, whenever I saw her I thought she would die any moment, it had been three days with no food and no water. Even with all the faith and patience in the world, the situation couldn't be more deplorable.

It was already Tuesday and by checking our watch we knew it was nine o'clock in the morning, desperation showed on our faces, nothing would alleviate our sorrow, my baby sister was barely able to move, the air kept getting thinner and thinner, Doña Maria couldn't even talk anymore and her husband feared the worst.

It was almost noon when we heard some voices in the distance, when I heard them closer I started screaming at the top of my lungs, here! Here we are! Help us…soon after there was silence. An hour later we heard the rambling of a motor, it sounded like a bulldozer slowly removing the debris, we felt the life coming back to our bodies when we realized we were being rescued. Around four hours passed before the first one of us was rescued from this purgatory.

One by one we came out, Doña Maria was the first to be taken cared of by the paramedics, minutes later she started giving signs of recovery, my mother had cuts on her legs and Nora's baby was a little dehydrated, my sister was very scared, each one of us had been affected in different ways. After we came out of our "trap' I noticed that only one part of the house had been damaged and asked the rescuers how were they able to locate us. It seemed someone had seen some sparkle coming out of a of a small crack and that made them come closer and investigate. I immediately thought of that gorgeous crystal rosary and how when the sun hit it, reflected the light in sparkles of colors and it was these that filtered through that crack and alerted them. I immediately went to Don Juan and told him that it had been the rosary that adorn the Virgin's tunic what had saved our lives. He looked at me in wonderment and informed me that the Virgin didn't have a any rosary on her, I described it to him but he still insisted it wasn't so.

To assured me of what he was saying, we went back in and in effect the Virgin didn't have any rosary on her, I insisted that I had seen it and went ahead and described it again, after I had finished he proceeded to one of the rooms in the part of the house that wasn't damaged by the explosion. When he came back he was holding in his hands the very same rosary I had seen on the Virgin's tunic downstairs, it was impossible, the rosary belonged to Doña Maria and had been on a night table in her own bedroom upstairs.




Definitely something really amazing had happened. I was still trying to understand and make sense of it when I heard my father's voice calling us; I looked up and started running towards him, he had also been rescued and even though he had a bullet wound in his leg, he was safe and sound along with his three friends. That terrible confrontation had ended the day before, but you could still hear some scattered bullets in the distance.

The rebels had been temporarily defeated, many of them fled to the mountains around the city where they found refuge. My house had to be partly reconstructed, four months passed before we could move back in. Momentarily we moved in with my paternal grandparents, we tried to remain together as each one of us had something horrible to tell. Even though the war didn't end and many more dark days awaited us, I felt very happy and fortunate to be with my parents and sister. As long as we stayed together there was nothing we couldn't face. That day I understood that I had witness a miracle of faith; it had been only my eyes that had seen that rosary on the Virgin's tunic, the image of the Virgin had remained intact. Material things could be replaced and my parents were alive, the Virgin had assisted us in our agony. From that day on and to this day I pray the rosary every day, some days complete and others partially but I never miss a day for back in those moments of anguish I promised to do it and with the pass of time, I've come to realize that miracles happen all the time if you come with true faith and devotion to the Mother of the Savior.




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cipotes : SÍMBOLOS PATRIOS DE "EL SALVADOR"
Enviado por Escritor10 el 3/6/2005 0:59:46 (10275 Lecturas)
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Símbolos Patrios de El Salvador


por Mario Jiménez Castillo.


Los símbolos patrios de la República de El Salvador fueron creación de grandes patriotas, poetas y compositores quienes reflejaron todo el amor a su patria a través de tan excelsas creaciones. El himno nacional, el escudo de armas y nuestra bandera representan lo que somos: nuestra cultura, nuestra herencia y nuestra historia. Rendir reverencia a los símbolos patrios representa un dogma cívico que debe ser acatado por todos los salvadoreños tanto dentro como fuera de nuestras fronteras.

El amor a nuestra patria debe reflejarse en nuestros hechos, vivencias, creencias y actividades. El 15 de septiembre marca la fecha que conmemora nuestra independencia, es el día de la patria y cada uno de los más de siete millones de salvadoreños debemos sentirnos honrados y orgullosos de la tierra que nos vio nacer



El Himno Nacional

En los capítulos que encierran la historia de nuestro país se tienen datos de la existencia de otros dos himnos nacionales que alguna vez se cantaron allá por 1866 y 1890, sin embargo el auténtico Himno Nacional de El Salvador fue escrito por el General Juan José Cañas y compuesto por el músico italiano Juan Aberle(quien se naturalizo como salvadoreño posteriormente) Fue el presidente de aquel entonces don Rafael Zaldívar quien encomendó la composición del himno y fue cantado por primera vez en el Palacio Nacional de San Salvador el 15 de septiembre de 1879.
Por decreto legislativo se instituyó nuestro himno como patrimonio popular de nuestro país en el año 1953.

CORO DEL HIMNO

Saludemos la Patria orgullosos de hijos suyos podernos llamar; y juremos la vida animosos sin descanso a su bien consagrar.


PRIMERA ESTROFA

De la paz en la dicha suprema, siempre noble soñó El Salvador; fue obtenerla su eterno problema, conservarla es su gloria mayor.
Y con fe inquebrantable el camino del progreso se afana en seguir, por llenar su grandioso destino conquistarse un feliz porvenir.
Le protege una férrea barrera contra el choque de ruin deslealtad, desde el día en que su alta bandera con su sangre escribió:¡LIBERTAD!


SEGUNDA ESTROFA

Libertad es su dogma, es su guía que mil veces logró defender; y otras tantas, de audaz tiranía, rechazar el odioso poder.
Dolorosa y sangrienta es su historia, pero excelsa y brillante a la vez; manantial de legítima gloria, gran lección de espartana altivez.
No desmaya en su innata bravura, en cada hombre hay un héroe inmortal que sabrá mantenerse a la altura de su antiguo valor proverbial.


TERCERA ESTROFA

Todos son abnegados, y fieles al prestigio del bélico ardor con que siempre segaron laureles de la patria salvando el honor.
Respetar los derechos extraños y apoyarse en la recta razón es para ella, sin torpes amaños, su invariable, mas firme ambición.
Y en seguir esta línea se aferra dedicando su esfuerzo tenaz, en hacer cruda guerra a la guerra: su ventura se encuentra en la paz.



Oración a la Bandera de El Salvador

"Dios te salve patria sagrada, en tu seno hemos nacido y amado, eres el aire que respiramos, la tierra que nos sustenta, la familia que amamos, la libertad que nos defiende, la religión que nos consuela.
Tu tienes nuestros hogares queridos, fértiles campiñas, ríos majestuosos, soberbios volcanes, apacibles lagos, cielos de púrpura y oro. En tus campos ondulan doradas espigas, en tus talleres vibran los motores, chisporrotean los yunques, surgen las bellezas del arte.
Patria en tu lengua armoniosa pedimos a la providencia que te ampare, que abra nuestras almas al resplandor del cielo, grabe en ella dulce afecto al maestro y a la escuela y nos infunda tu santo amor.
Patria tu historia, blasón de héroes y mártires, reseñas virtudes y anhelos; tú reverencias el acta que consagró la soberanía nacional y marcas la senda florida en que la justicia y la libertad nos llevan hacia Dios.

¡Bandera de la Patria, símbolo sagrado de El Salvador, te saludan reverentes las nuevas generaciones ¡ Para ti el sol vivificante de nuestras glorias, los himnos del patriotismo, los laureles de los héroes y la corona de amor que hoy ceñimos a tus inmortales sienes."




El Escudo Nacional


El Escudo de Armas que representa a nuestro país fue creado por el calígrafo salvadoreño Rafael Barraza Rodríguez quien resultó ganador de un concurso promovido por el entonces Ministerio de Guerra y Marina en el año 1912.
El Escudo nacional representa nuestra esencia en cada uno de los elementos que lo conforman:
El triángulo equilátero representa Libertad-Igualdad y Fraternidad.
Los cinco volcanes representan las cinco repúblicas de América central existentes en aquel entonces.
El gorro frigio representa la libertad.
Las cinco banderas Representan las banderas nacionales de las cinco repúblicas Centroamericanas.
Los dos mares representan los océanos que bañan las costas de Centroamérica, el océano Pacífico y el océano Atlántico.
Los 14 laureles simbolizan los 14 departamentos o provincias que conforman nuestro país.
Sobre la base que une los catorce laureles se observa nuestro lema nacional:
Dios-Unión Libertad. Lema que simboliza el amor a Dios a nuestra Patria y a nuestros semejantes.




"La Bandera Nacional"


La bandera nacional consta de tres franjas, dos de color azul que representan la inmensidad del mar, una blanca que hace alusión a la grandeza del cielo y el escudo nacional de armas situado en el medio de la franja blanca el cual simboliza nuestra composición y situación geográfica entre muchos otros aspectos.
Los colores de la bandera fueron elegidos por el General Manuel José Arce prócer y padre de la patria, quien dirigió triunfalmente a la milicia salvadoreña que luchó en contra de la anexión de las Provincias Unidas de Centroamérica con México.
En el siglo XIX se adoptó una bandera cinco franjas azules y cuatro blancas con catorce estrellas que simbolizaban los catorce departamentos.
El 17 de mayo de 1912 fue adoptada por decreto de la asamblea legislativa nuestra actual bandera y la misma representa la Federación Centroamericana de 1823.
El doctor Manuel Enrique Araujo presidente de El Salvador(1911-1913) fue el primero en izar la bandera nacional el 15 de septiembre de 1912.
Quién no recuerda haber recitado en su época escolar la oración a la bandera que representa a nuestra patria. Cada una de sus frases nos hace recordar la grandeza de nuestro país, la belleza natural que encierra nuestra tierra y el espíritu emprendedor y generoso de todo un pueblo.

Muchos han sido los poetas salvadoreños que se han inspirado y han escrito sublimes versos en relación a la bandera nacional, entre ellos el poeta y escritor Carlos Bustamante creador de la oración a la bandera quien por tal magnánima composición obtuvo la medalla de oro en un concurso promovido por el periódico La Prensa en 1915.



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cipotes : Los Números MAYAS
Enviado por Escritor10 el 3/6/2005 0:28:53 (7880 Lecturas)
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[b]Los Números Mayas [b]


por Mario Jiménez Castillo.


La cultura Maya ha sido determinada como la más antigua y predominante que se concoce en la historia del continente americano. Todavía existen tribus descendientes de su raza en cienrtas regiones del sur de México y el noroeste de Centroamérica.

Los Mayas nos legaron conocimientos de incalculable valor como su arquitectura, música, cerámica, literatura, calendario, oráXXX y numerología. Todos estos legados datan de los años 3000 a 500 antes de Cristo.

Los números eran usados para enumerar y también para predecir.
Los antiguos astrólogos Mayas desarrollaron un oráXXX para analizar eventos futuros, el cual consta de 44 figuras que representan meses, glifos, días, divinidades y los primeros catorce números.
Cabe recalcar que la civilización Maya fue la única cultura prehispánica que tenía conocimiento del Cero.



Significado de los números:



Cero
Caos, principio o fin.

Uno
Unidad, amor incondicional, protección divina, inicios, nacimiento y familia.

Dos
Amistad, uniones, cooperación de los amigos, relaciones amorosas, virtud y crecimiento espiritual.

Tres
Movimiento, cambio oportuno, creatividad, integración de mente, cuerpo y espíritu.

Cuatro
Medida, orden, definición, ciclos normales de la vida, visualización del futuro.

Cinco
Propósito, meta principal, acertividad, inteligencia, justicia e igualdad y aceptación de los demás.

Seis
Balance, favores divinos, echar raíces en un lugar, dinamismo, y equilibrio.

Siete
Poder místico, auto aceptación, conexión directa con el conocimiento universal, solución de conflictos.

Ocho
Crecimiento económico, suerte, sanación, autoestima, fin de una lucha.

Nueve
Largos períodos de tiempo, expansión, buena salud, crecimiento familiar, actividades productivas, el poder del Creador.

Diez
Formación de la identidad, creencias divinas, la madre, la intuición y el amor propio.

Once
Cambio desfavorable, desintegración, necesidad de aislamiento, compl,ejidad para lo que es simple, sumisión.

Doce
Estabilidad y equilibrio emocional, buena fortuna, completo entendeimiento de la vida, unión de fuerzas humanas y astrales.

Trece
Cambios inesperados, situaciones polémicas, decadencia enla salud y en las finanzas, austeridad, experiencias duras pero necesarias para seguir en evolución.


. .. ... .... ___


_.__ __..__ __...___



___....____



______
______




___.____
________


___..___
_______




_____...____
___________

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cipotes : Diccionario de la Lengua Nahuatl
Enviado por Escritor10 el 3/6/2005 0:23:08 (16596 Lecturas)
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Diccionario de la lengua Náhuatl



Dos mil años antes de la conquista española , el área que comprendía nuestro país El Salvador ya estaba densamente poblada por varias tribus indigenas entre las que predominaban los pipiles, los lencas y los nahoas. Los Pipiles habían llegado a establecerse en el occidente y centro de la región, eran seminómadas y venían del centro de lo que ahora es México. La lengua que predominaba en la región era el nahuatl y otros dialectos derivados de éste como por ejemplo el nahua.


Durante la conquista se destruyeron monumentos, piezas y objetos religiosos, artesanías, códices y una vasta cantidad de escritos que conservaban archivos y datos que guardaban celosamente los cimientos de nuestra historia cultural precolombina. En aquel entonces la impositiva y cruel<< Inquisición>> aplastaba a su paso todo lo que no se apegaba a las enseñanzas de la religión católica y por tal motivo los conquistadores casi acaban con toda la cultura prehispánica, gracias a Dios se pudieron salvar escritos de incalculable valor como el Rabinal Achi y el Popol Vuh, ambos de origen Maya.


A diferencia de otros naciones vecinas, en nuestro país son muy pocos los ciudadanos que aun hablan las lenguas indígenas, quizá llegarán a cuatrocientas personas a lo sumo, quienes se encuentran diseminadas en pueblos como Izalco, Nahuizalco y Panchimalco.

Seria interesante que el gobierno de El Salvador a través del ministerio de cultura, se preocupara por rescatar la escencia de nuestra cultura precolombina, sería hermoso llegar a contar con un museo en donde se pudieran apreciar no solo las piezas arqueológicas, sino también la vestimenta que se usaba en aquel entonces, los utensilios de cocina, las fibras en las que se escribían los códices, las joyas y oramentos que usaban las mujeres, los plumajes que adornaban las cabezas de los caciques, los juguetes que usaban los niños, los objetos que usaba el médico xx, los utensilios religiosos, en fin, un sitio maravilloso que por si sólo relatara en imágenes el origen de la historia Cuzcatleca <<Maya Pipil.>>


Como dato curioso se debe mencionar que la cultura de los Pipiles era bastante parecida a la de los aztecas, sin embargo se conviertieron en el primer grupo de indigenas mesoamericanos que decidieron abolir los sacrificios humanos.
Con el paso de los siglos muchas palabras de origen náhuatl se fueron castellanizando pero aun conservan su herencia indigena. A continuación se presenta un pequeño compendio de palabras en Náhuatl y su respectivo significado en español.


achtontli. antepasado.
achtopa. primero
acicamatl. comprender
ahuacatl aguacate
ahuitl. tía.
amantecatl. artesano.
amatl. códice
aocmo huecauh. un momento.
atolli. atol
atonahui. fiebre
axixcalli. baño
ayotl. tortuga
azcatl. hormiga

cíhuatl. mujer, hembra
cahuitl. tiempo
calaqui. entrar.
calli. casa.
calpolli. tribu.
caltentli. puerta.
camactli. boca.
cemanahuatl. universo
cenca cualli. muy bien.
cenyohual. toda la noche
chihua. hacer
chihuilia. hacer algo
chilli. chile.
chipahua. limpiar.
chiquihuitl. canasta
chocolatl. chocolate
cihtli. abuela
cihuapillahtocatzintli. reina.
cihuapilli. señora
coatl. serpiente.
cochcayotl. cena.
cochehua despertar
cochi. dormir.
cochihuayan. recámara.
cochmiqui. tener sueño.
cocoxcacalli. hospital
cocoxqui. enfermo.
cohua. comprar
colli. abuelo.
coloti. alacrán.
comalli. comal.
comitl. olla.
conetl. niño.
coni. beber.
cuahuitl. árbol
cuaitl. cabeza.
cuauhtla bosque.
cueitl. falda.
cueyatl. rana.
cuica. cantar.
cuicani. cantante
cuicatl. canto
cuicuizcatl. golondrina.


eiehuia. desear.
etl. frijoles.


hualhuica. traer
hualquiztia. salir
hueca. lejos.
huehue. viejo.
huelic. sabroso
hueltiuhtli. hermana.
huetzca. reír
huetzi. caer
huexolotl. pavo
huilotl. paloma
huiptla. pasado mañana.
huitzitzilin. colibrí.


ica paquiliztli. con gusto.
ichcatl. oveja.
ichpochtli. muchacha
iciuhca. rápidamente
icniuhtli. amigo
icnotl. pobre
icpalli. silla
icxitl. pie.
ihcuiloa. escribir.
ilhuicatl. cielo.
imacaci temer
in xochtl in cuicatl. poesía
inech monequi. es preciso
ipan. en encima de
itech calli. dentro de la casa.
ititl. estómago.
itqui. llevar.
itquin. cuando
itzcuintli. perro.
ixmati. conocer
ixtelolotl. ojo.
iztitl. uña.


maitl. mano.
mayana. hambre
mazatl. venado.
mehua. levantarse.
metzli. pierna. .
meztli luna
michin. pez.
mictia. matar.
miqui morir.
miztli. león
mizton. gato.
mochi. todo.
mochipa. siempre.
mocochcayotia. cenar.
mococoa. estar enfermo.
momatequia. lavarse las manos.
momauhtia. asustarse
momayahui. arrojarse.
momotzoa. masaje.
momoztlae. diariamente.
monamictia. casarse.
monequiltia. querer.
mopopolhuilia. perdonar.
moquetza. ponerse de pie.
motlaquentia. vestirse.
motlatoa. correr.
moztla. mañana.

nacatl. carne.
nacayotl. cuerpo.
nacaztli. oreja.
nahualli. xx.
nahuatia. mandar
nahuatlahtolli. lengua nahuatl.
namictli. esposo, esposa.
nanquilia. responder.
nantli. madre.
nehnemi. caminar.
nemachtiloyan. escuela.
nemi. vivir.
nenepilli. lengua.
nequi. querer.
ni-. yo
nican. aquí.
niltze. hola
niman. después.
nocenyeliz. mi familia.
nohuican. también.
notza. platicar
notzontecon. cabeza


occe. otro
occe tlamantli. otra cosa
occepa. otra vez
occequi. otro
ocelotl. jaguar.
ohtli. camino.
onimitzittac. te vi.
oquichtli. varón
oztotl. cueva.

paca. lavar
pahti. curar
pahtli. medicina
papalotl. mariposa.
petlatl. cama
pitzotl. cerdo.
pochtecatl. comerciante.
poctli. humo.

quenin. cómo
quin axcan. hace poco.
quin tepan. más tarde
quiyahui. llover.
quiyahuitl. lluvia.
quiza. salir. ver

tahtli. padre.
tamalli. tamal.
tech- nosotros.
tecolotl. búho
telpochtli. muchacho.
temachtiani. maestro.
teneyeyecoitiliztli. tentación
teniza. desayunar.
tennamiqui. besar.
tentzontli. bigote.
teocalli. templo.
teocuitlatl. oro.
teopixqui. sacerdote.
tepahtiani. médico.
tepec. monte.
tepehuani. conquistador. sus
tepepan. monte.
tepetl. montaña
tequipachoa. preocuparse
tequipanoa. trabajar
tetl. piedra
tlaca. tarde.
tlacachihua. tener hijos
tlacatl. persona.
tlacua. comer.
tlacualchihualoyan. cocina
tlacualli. comida.
tlacualoyan. comedor.
tlahtlacolli. ofensa.
tlahtoa. hablar.
tlahtoani. rey.
tlahtolli. idioma
tlahuilli. luz
tlamachtilli. alumno.
tlamaneloa. nadar.
tlamatini. sabio.
tlaocoya. triste
tlaolli. maiz.
tlatlacalhuia. ofender
tlatzacuillotl. puerta
tlaxcalchihua. hacer tortillas
tlaxcalli. tortillas
tlazocamati. gracias.
tlazohtla. amar.
tlazolli. basura.
tletl. fuego.
tocaitl. nombre.
tocatl. araña
tochtli. conejo
toltecatl. hombre de ciencia
tonalli. día.
tototl. pájaro
tzontli. pelo
tzopelic. dulce

xayacatl. cara
xihuitl. hierba
xinachtli. semilla
xitomatl jitomate
xoxoctic. verde

yacatl. nariz.
yancuic. nuevo.
yauh. ir.
yohuac. noche
yohualtica. de noche.
yolcatl. insecto
yoli. vivir
yollotl. corazón
yolpaqui. alegrarse
zatlatzonco. por último
zayolin. mosca.
zazanilli. cuento
zolin. codorniz
zoquitl. lodo





Referencias: El mundo de los Aztecas. Victor Von Hagen.

Dialectos del Nuevo Mundo Victor Von Hagen.

Los Pueblos de Mesoamérica Paul Dough



Artículo original de Mario Jiménez Castillo

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cipotes : Historia Presidencial de El Salvador ( por Mario Jimènez Castillo)
el 23/2/2005 2:51:58 (8880 Lecturas)
cipotes

Historia Presidencial de El Salvador

por Mario Jiménez Castillo.

Desde que consiguió su independencia de España, nuestro país El Salvador, ha sido gobernado por una serie de políticos y militares que han ganado un puesto en casa presidencial, unos han servido a su patria con dignidad, otros han sido derrocados antes de terminar su mandato y existen algunos que han gobernado el país sin pena ni gloria.

Entre los mandatarios más renombrados por sus hazañas se encuentra el General Maximiliano Hernández Martínez quien eliminó la deuda externa durante sus más de nueve años en el poder, también se destacó por su mano dura ante la delincuencia y por su frialdad ante los derechos humanos al sofocar sangrientamente la rebelión campesina de 1932. Una huelga nacional logró su dimisión en 1944.

A principios de los setentas llegó al poder el Coronel Arturo Armando Molina quien a pesar de la fuerte oposición que enfrentaba, hizo mucho por la infraestructura del país, amplió la carretera panamericana, modernizó la fachada de varias ciudades y mandó a construir entre otros parques nacionales y balnearios como el conocido Sihuatehuacán de la ciudad de Santa Ana.

Con Napoleón Duarte se acabó la dictadura militar dando pasó a un país más democrático, sin embargo la corrupción gubernamental llegó a niveles alarmantes durante su mandato. Con Alfredo Cristiani llegó la firma de la paz y se comenzó a modernizar la gran San Salvador, no obstante durante su gestión la inflación subió a niveles insospechados. Calderón Sol realizó algunas obras importantes especialmente en la capital, aunque la inflación subió al nivel más crítico durante su período presidencial.

Nuestroex-mandatario el señor Francisco Flores Pérez, gestionó la ayuda que recibió nuestro pueblo después de los terremotos del 2001, impulsó la dolarización y se declaró como fuerte opositor al régimen de Fidel Castro. Su talón de Aquiles fue sido la huelga de trabajadores del sector médico y el vandalismo pandilleril que no se ha podido controlar. Actiualemente Tony Saca presidente en turno se encuentra haciendo las gestiones para el Tratado de Libre Comercio con Estados Unidos y le ha hecho una petición al gobierno de George Bush para que en septiembre del 2006 alcancen la residencia permanente los salvadoreños que se encuentran amparados actualemente bajo el TPS.

Según los historiadores el mejor presidente que ha tenido El Salvador ha sido el General Tomás Regalado, mandatario que impulsó la agricultura y el turismo a finales de 1800, él se encontraba en el poder durante el cambio de siglo de 1899 a 1900. Impulsó la construcción de Iglesias en el interior del país y le dio todo su apoyo a los escritores, pintores y artistas de aquel entonces.

Lista de Mandatarios Salvadoreños.

1823-1899

Federación Centroamericana 1821-1823
Junta Consultiva 1823
Juan Manuel Rodríguez 1824
Mariano Prado 1826
José maría Cornejo 1829
Francisco Morazán 1832
Mariano Prado 1832
Joaquín San Martín 1833
Nicolás Espinosa 1835
Francisco Gómez 1835
Diego Vigil 1836
Timoteo Menéndez 1838
Francisco Morazán 1839
Juan Lindo 1841
Juan José Guzmán 1842
Pedro Arce 1843
Francisco Malespín 1844
Joaquín Eufrasio Guzmán 1844
Eugenio Aguilar 1846
Doroteo Vasconcelos 1848
Francisco Dueñas 1852
José María San Martín 1854
Rafael Campo 1856
Miguel Santín del Castillo 1858
Gerardo Barrios 1858
Francisco Dueñas 1863
Santiago González 1871
Andrés Valle y Rafael Zaldívar 1876
Francisco Menéndez 1885
Carlos Ezeta 1890
Rafael Antonio Gutiérrez 1894
Tomás Regalado 1899

1899-1999

Tomás Regalado 1899
Pedro José Escalón 1903
Fernando Figueroa 1907
Manuel Enrique Araujo 1911
Carlos Meléndez 1913
Alfonso Quiñónez Molina 1918
Jorge Menéndez 1919
Alfonso Quiñónez Molina 1923
Pío Romero Bosque 1927
Arturo Araujo 1931
Directorio Militar 1931
Andrés Ignacio Menéndez 1933
Maximiliano Hernández Martínez 1934
Andrés Ignacio Menéndez 1944
Osmín Aguirre y Salinas 1944
Salvador Castaneda 1945
Directorio Civil y Militar 1948
Oscar Osorio 1950
José Maria Lemus 1956
Junta de Gobierno 1960
Directorio de Gobierno 1961
Julio A. Rivera 1962
Fidel Sánchez Hernández 1967
Arturo Armando Molina 1972
Carlos Humberto Romero 1977
Junta Revolucionaria de Gobierno 1979
José Napoleón Duarte 1980
Álvaro Magaña Borja 1982
José Napoleón Duarte 1984
Alfredo Félix Cristiani 1989
Armando Calderón Sol 1994

1999-2004-2009

Francisco Flores Pérez 1999-2004

Antonio Elías Saca 2004-2009

Artículo original de : Mario Jimènez Castillo@


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